Details

Biofuel Cells


Biofuel Cells

Materials and Challenges
1. Aufl.

von: Inamuddin, Mohd Imran Ahamed, Rajender Boddula, Mashallah Rezakazemi

173,99 €

Verlag: Wiley
Format: EPUB
Veröffentl.: 30.07.2021
ISBN/EAN: 9781119725053
Sprache: englisch
Anzahl Seiten: 528

DRM-geschütztes eBook, Sie benötigen z.B. Adobe Digital Editions und eine Adobe ID zum Lesen.

Beschreibungen

<p>Rapid industrialization and urbanization associated with the environment changes calls for reduced pollution and thereby least use of fossil fuels. Biofuel cells are bioenergy resources and biocompatible alternatives to conventional fuel cells. Biofuel cells are one of the new sustainable renewable energy sources that are based on the direct conversion of chemical matters to electricity with the aid of microorganisms or enzymes as biocatalysts. The gradual depletion of fossil fuels, increasing energy needs, and the pressing problem of environmental pollution have stimulated a wide range of research and development efforts for renewable and environmentally friendly energy. Energy generation from biomass resources by employing biofuel cells is crucial for sustainable development. Biofuel cells have attracted considerable attention as micro-  or even nano-power sources for implantable biomedical devices, such as cardiac pacemakers, implantable self-powered sensors, and biosensors for monitoring physiological parameters.</p> <p>This book covers the most recent developments and offers a detailed overview of fundamentals, principles, mechanisms, properties, optimizing parameters, analytical characterization tools, various types of biofuel cells, all-category of materials, catalysts, engineering architectures, implantable biofuel cells, applications and novel innovations and challenges in this sector. This book is a reference guide for anyone working in the areas of energy and the environment.</p>
<p>Preface xvii</p> <p><b>1 Bioelectrocatalysis for Biofuel Cells 1<br /></b><i>Casanova-Moreno Jannu, Arjona Noé and Cercado Bibiana</i></p> <p>1.1 Introduction: Generalities of the Bioelectrocatalysis 2</p> <p>1.2 Reactions of Interest in Bioelectrocatalysis 3</p> <p>1.2.1 Enzyme Catalyzed Reactions 3</p> <p>1.2.2 Reactions Catalyzed by Microorganisms 8</p> <p>1.3 Immobilization of Biocatalyst 9</p> <p>1.3.1 Immobilization of Enzymes on Electrodes 9</p> <p>1.3.2 Preparation of Microbial Bioelectrodes 15</p> <p>1.4 Supports for Immobilization of Enzymes and Microorganisms for Biofuel Cells 17</p> <p>1.4.1 Buckypaper Bioelectrodes for BFCs 20</p> <p>1.4.2 Carbon Paper Bioelectrodes for BFCs 21</p> <p>1.4.3 Nitrogen-Doped Carbonaceous Materials as Bioelectrodes for BFCs 22</p> <p>1.4.4 Metal–Organic Framework (MOF)-Based Carbonaceous Materials as Bioelectrodes for BFCs 23</p> <p>1.4.5 Flexible Bioelectrodes for Flexible BFCs 24</p> <p>1.5 Electron Transfer Phenomena 25</p> <p>1.5.1 Enzyme-Electrode Electron Transfer 25</p> <p>1.5.2 Microorganism-Electrode Electron Transfer 31</p> <p>1.6 Bioelectrocatalysis Control 34</p> <p>1.6.1 Control of Enzymatic Bioelectrocatalysis 34</p> <p>1.6.2 Microbiological Catalysis Control 35</p> <p>1.7 Recent Applications of Bioelectrocatalysis 36</p> <p>1.7.1 Biosensors 36</p> <p>1.7.2 Microbial Catalyzed CO<sub>2</sub> Reduction 37</p> <p>References 39</p> <p><b>2 Novel Innovations in Biofuel Cells 53<br /></b><i>Muhammet Samet Kilic and Seyda Korkut</i></p> <p>2.1 Introduction to Biological Fuel Cells 53</p> <p>2.1.1 Implantable BFCs 55</p> <p>2.1.2 Wearable BFCs 59</p> <p>2.2 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 63</p> <p>Acknowledgment 64</p> <p>References 64</p> <p><b>3 Implantable Biofuel Cells for Biomedical Applications 69<br /></b><i>Arushi Chauhan and Pramod Avti</i></p> <p>3.1 Introduction 70</p> <p>3.2 Biofuel Cells 72</p> <p>3.2.1 Microbial Biofuel Cells 72</p> <p>3.2.1.1 Design and Configuration 73</p> <p>3.3 Enzymatic Biofuel Cells 75</p> <p>3.3.1 Design and Configurations 75</p> <p>3.3.2 Factors Affecting 77</p> <p>3.4 Mechanism of Electron Transfer 80</p> <p>3.5 Energy Sources in the Human Body 81</p> <p>3.6 Biomedical Applications 83</p> <p>3.6.1 Glucose-Based Biofuels Cells 84</p> <p>3.6.2 Pacemakers 85</p> <p>3.6.3 Implanted Brain–Machine Interface 86</p> <p>3.6.4 Biomarkers 87</p> <p>3.7 Limitations 87</p> <p>3.8 Conclusion and Future Perspectives 88</p> <p>References 88</p> <p>Abbreviations 95</p> <p><b>4 Enzymatic Biofuel Cells 97<br /></b><i>Rabisa Zia, Ayesha Taj, Sumaira Younis, Haq Nawaz Bhatti, Waheed S. Khan and Sadia Z. Bajwa</i></p> <p>4.1 Introduction 98</p> <p>4.2 Enzyme Used in EBFCs 99</p> <p>4.3 Enzyme Immobilization Materials 103</p> <p>4.3.1 Physical Adsorption Onto a Solid Surface 105</p> <p>4.3.2 Entrapment in a Matrix 106</p> <p>4.3.3 Sol–Gel Entrapment 106</p> <p>4.3.4 Nanomaterials as Matrices for Enzyme Immobilization 107</p> <p>4.3.5 Covalent Bonding 109</p> <p>4.3.6 Cross-Linking With Bifunctional or Multifunctional Reagents 110</p> <p>4.4 Applications of EBFCs 111</p> <p>4.4.1 Self-Powered Biosensors 111</p> <p>4.4.2 EBFCs Into Implantable Bioelectronics 111</p> <p>4.4.3 EBFCs Powering Portable Devices 112</p> <p>4.5 Challenges 114</p> <p>4.6 Conclusion 116</p> <p>References 116</p> <p><b>5 Introduction to Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC): Waste Matter to Electricity 123<br /></b><i>Rustiana Yuliasni, Abudukeremu Kadier, Nanik Indah Setianingsih, Junying Wang, Nani Harihastuti and Peng-Cheng Ma</i></p> <p>5.1 Introduction 124</p> <p>5.2 Operating Principles of MFC 125</p> <p>5.3 Main Components and Materials of MFCs 126</p> <p>5.3.1 Anode Materials 126</p> <p>5.3.2 Cathode Materials 134</p> <p>5.3.3 Substrates or Fed-Stocks 135</p> <p>5.3.4 MFC Cell Configurations 135</p> <p>5.4 Current and Prospective Applications of MFC Technology 136</p> <p>5.5 Conclusion and Future Prospects 138</p> <p>Acknowledgement 138</p> <p>References 138</p> <p><b>6 Flexible Biofuel Cells: An Overview 145<br /></b><i>Gayatri Konwar and Debajyoti Mahanta</i></p> <p>6.1 Introduction 145</p> <p>6.1.1 Working Principle of Fuel Cell 146</p> <p>6.1.2 Types of Fuel Cells 148</p> <p>6.2 Biofuel Cells (BFCs) 149</p> <p>6.2.1 Working Principle 149</p> <p>6.2.1.1 Microbial Fuel Cell 150</p> <p>6.2.1.2 Photomicrobial Fuel Cell 151</p> <p>6.2.1.3 Enzymatic Fuel Cell 151</p> <p>6.2.2 Applications of Biofuel Cells 152</p> <p>6.3 Needs for Flexible Biofuel Cell 153</p> <p>6.3.1 Fuel Diversity 153</p> <p>6.3.2 Materials for Flexible Biofuel Cells 154</p> <p>6.3.3 Fabrication of Bioelectrodes 156</p> <p>6.3.4 Recent Advances and New Progress for the Development of Flexible Biofuel Cell 156</p> <p>6.3.4.1 Carbon-Based Electrode Materials for Flexible Biofuel Cells 157</p> <p>6.3.4.2 Textile and Polymer-Based Electrode Materials for Flexible Biofuel Cells 160</p> <p>6.3.4.3 Metal-Based Electrode Materials 162</p> <p>6.3.5 Challenges Faced by Flexible Biofuel Cell 162</p> <p>6.4 Conclusion 164</p> <p>References 164</p> <p><b>7 Carbon Nanomaterials for Biofuel Cells 171<br /></b><i>Udaya Bhat K. and Devadas Bhat P.</i></p> <p>List of Abbreviations 172</p> <p>7.1 Introduction 173</p> <p>7.2 Types of Biofuel Cells 174</p> <p>7.2.1 Enzyme-Based Biofuel Cell (EBFC) 175</p> <p>7.2.2 Microbial-Based Biofuel Cells (MBFCs) 176</p> <p>7.3 Carbon-Based Materials for Biofuel Cells 176</p> <p>7.3.1 Cellulose-Based Biomass Fuel Cells 176</p> <p>7.3.2 Starch and Glucose-Based Fuel Cells 177</p> <p>7.3.3 Carbon Nanoparticles (NPs) 178</p> <p>7.3.4 Graphite 179</p> <p>7.3.5 Nanographene 179</p> <p>7.3.5.1 N-Doped Graphene 182</p> <p>7.3.6 Carbon Nanotubes 182</p> <p>7.3.6.1 Buckypapers 187</p> <p>7.3.6.2 Hydrogenases 188</p> <p>7.3.6.3 N-Doped CNTs 189</p> <p>7.3.6.4 Biphenylated CNTs 189</p> <p>7.3.7 Nanohorns 189</p> <p>7.3.8 Nanorods 190</p> <p>7.3.9 Carbon Nanofibers 191</p> <p>7.3.10 Nanoballs 191</p> <p>7.3.11 Nanosheets 192</p> <p>7.3.12 Reticulated Vitreous Carbon (RVC) 192</p> <p>7.3.13 Porous Carbon 192</p> <p>7.4 Applications of Biofuel Cells Using Carbon-Based Nanomaterials 193</p> <p>7.4.1 Living Batteries/Implantable Fuel Cells 193</p> <p>7.4.1.1 Animal <i>In Vivo </i>Implantation 194</p> <p>7.4.1.2 Energy Extraction From Body Fluids 195</p> <p>7.4.2 Energy Extraction From Fruits 197</p> <p>7.5 Conclusion 197</p> <p>References 198</p> <p><b>8 Glucose Biofuel Cells 219<br /></b><i>Srijita Basumallick</i></p> <p>8.1 Introduction 219</p> <p>8.2 Merits of BFC Over FC 220</p> <p>8.3 Glucose Oxidize (GOs) as Enzyme Catalyst in Glucose Biofuel Cells 221</p> <p>8.4 General Experimental Technique for Fabrication of Enzyme GOs Immobilized Electrodes for Glucose Oxidation 222</p> <p>8.5 General Method of Characterization of Fabricated Enzyme Immobilized Working Electrode 223</p> <p>8.6 Determination of Electron Transfer Rate Constant (ks) 224</p> <p>8.7 Denaturation of Enzymes 225</p> <p>8.8 Conclusions 225</p> <p>Acknowledgments 226</p> <p>References 226</p> <p><b>9 Photochemical Biofuel Cells 229<br /></b><i>Mohd Nur Ikhmal Salehmin, Rosmahani Mohd Shah, Mohamad Azuwa Mohamed, Ibdal Satar and Siti Mariam Daud</i></p> <p>9.1 Introduction 230</p> <p>9.1.1 Various Configuration of PBEC-FC 231</p> <p>9.2 Photosynthetic Biofuel Cell (PS-BFC) 233</p> <p>9.2.1 Various Configurations of PS-BFC 234</p> <p>9.3 Photovoltaic-Biofuel Cell (PV-BFC) 238</p> <p>9.4 Photoelectrode Integrated-Biofuel Cell (PE-BFC) 240</p> <p>9.4.1 The Basic Mechanism of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Reaction 241</p> <p>9.4.2 Photoelectrode-Integrated BFC 242</p> <p>9.4.3 Various Configuration of PE-BFC 243</p> <p>9.4.4 Materials Used in PE-BFC 245</p> <p>9.5 Potential Fuels Generation and Their Performance From PEC-BFC 247</p> <p>9.5.1 Hydrogen Generation 247</p> <p>9.5.2 Contaminants Removal and Waste Remediation 249</p> <p>9.5.3 Sustainable Power Generation 251</p> <p>9.6 Conclusion 252</p> <p>References 253</p> <p><b>10 Engineering Architectures for Biofuel Cells 261<br /></b><i>Udaya Bhat K. and Devadas Bhat P.</i></p> <p>Abbreviations 261</p> <p>10.1 Introduction 263</p> <p>10.1.1 Biofuel Cell 263</p> <p>10.1.2 General Configuration of a Biofuel Cell 263</p> <p>10.2 Role as Miniaturized Ones 264</p> <p>10.3 Attractiveness 266</p> <p>10.3.1 Biological Sensors 266</p> <p>10.3.2 Implantable Medical Devices 267</p> <p>10.3.2.1 Invertebrates 268</p> <p>10.3.2.2 Vertebrates 269</p> <p>10.3.3 Electronics 269</p> <p>10.3.4 Building Materials 270</p> <p>10.4 Architecture 270</p> <p>10.4.1 Fabrication and Design 270</p> <p>10.4.1.1 Modeling 271</p> <p>10.4.1.2 Sol–Gel Encapsulation 272</p> <p>10.4.1.3 3D Electrode Architecture 272</p> <p>10.4.1.4 Multi-Enzyme Systems (Enzyme Cascades) 273</p> <p>10.4.1.5 Linear Cascades 273</p> <p>10.4.1.6 Cyclic Cascades 274</p> <p>10.4.1.7 Parallel Cascades 274</p> <p>10.4.1.8 Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) 274</p> <p>10.4.2 Single Compartment Layout 275</p> <p>10.4.3 Two-Compartment Layout 275</p> <p>10.4.4 Mechanisms 275</p> <p>10.4.4.1 Direct Electron Transfer 275</p> <p>10.4.4.2 Mediated Electron Transfer 276</p> <p>10.4.5 Materials 277</p> <p>10.4.5.1 Carbon Nanomaterials 277</p> <p>10.4.5.2 H<sub>2</sub>/O<sub>2</sub> Biofuel Cells 277</p> <p>10.4.5.3 Hydrogenases 278</p> <p>10.4.5.4 Fungal Cellulases 279</p> <p>10.4.6 Characterization 279</p> <p>10.4.6.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) 279</p> <p>10.4.6.2 Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) 279</p> <p>10.4.6.3 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) 280</p> <p>10.4.6.4 Fluorescence Microscopy 280</p> <p>10.4.7 Metagenomic Techniques 280</p> <p>10.4.7.1 Pre-Treatment of Environmental Samples 281</p> <p>10.4.7.2 Nucleic Acid Extraction 281</p> <p>10.4.8 Integrated Devices 282</p> <p>10.5 Issues and Perspectives 282</p> <p>10.6 Future Challenges in the Architectural Engineering 283</p> <p>10.7 Conclusions 283</p> <p>References 284</p> <p><b>11 Biofuel Cells for Commercial Applications 299<br /></b><i>Mohan Kumar Anand Raj, Rajasekar Rathanasamy, Moganapriya Chinnasamy and Sathish Kumar Palaniappan</i></p> <p>Abbreviations 299</p> <p>11.1 Introduction 300</p> <p>11.1.1 History of Biofuel Cell 300</p> <p>11.2 Classification of Electrochemical Devices Based on Fuel Confinement 303</p> <p>11.2.1 Process of Electron Shift From Response Site to Electrode 303</p> <p>11.2.2 Bioelectrochemical Cells Including an Entire Organism 303</p> <p>11.2.3 Entire Organism Product Biofuel Cells Producing Hydrogen Gas 304</p> <p>11.2.4 Entire Organism Non-Diffusive Biofuel Cells 305</p> <p>11.3 Application of Biofuel Cells 307</p> <p>11.3.1 Micro- and Nanotechnology 308</p> <p>11.3.2 Self-Powered Biofuel Sensor 309</p> <p>11.3.3 Switchable Biofuel Cells and Logic Gates 310</p> <p>11.3.4 Microbial Energy Production 310</p> <p>11.3.5 Transport and Energy Generation 311</p> <p>11.3.6 Infixable Power Sources 312</p> <p>11.3.7 Aqua Treatment 312</p> <p>11.3.8 Robots 312</p> <p>11.4 Conclusion 312</p> <p>References 313</p> <p><b>12 Development of Suitable Cathode Catalyst for Biofuel Cells 317<br /></b><i>Mehak Munjal, Deepak Kumar Yadav, Raj Kishore Sharma and Gurmeet Singh</i></p> <p>12.1 Introduction 317</p> <p>12.2 Kinetics and Mechanism of Oxygen Reduction Reaction 321</p> <p>12.3 Techniques for Evaluating ORR Catalyst 322</p> <p>12.4 Cathode Catalyst in BFCs 326</p> <p>12.5 Chemical Catalyst 327</p> <p>12.5.1 Metals-Based Catalyst 327</p> <p>12.5.1.1 Metals and Alloys 327</p> <p>12.5.1.2 Metal Oxide 328</p> <p>12.5.2 Carbon Materials 331</p> <p>12.6 Microbial Catalyst 332</p> <p>12.7 Enzymatic Catalyst for Biofuel Cell 333</p> <p>12.8 Conclusion 334</p> <p>Acknowledgements 335</p> <p>References 335</p> <p><b>13 Biofuel Cells for Water Desalination 345<br /></b><i>Somakraj Banerjee, Ranjana Das and Chiranjib Bhattacharjee</i></p> <p>13.1 Introduction 345</p> <p>13.2 Biofuel Cell 347</p> <p>13.2.1 Basic Mechanism 347</p> <p>13.2.2 Types of Biofuel Cells 348</p> <p>13.2.2.1 Enzymatic Fuel Cell 349</p> <p>13.2.2.2 Microbial Fuel Cell 349</p> <p>13.3 Biofuel Cells for Desalination: Microbial Desalination Cell 350</p> <p>13.3.1 Working Mechanism 351</p> <p>13.3.2 Microbial Desalination Cell Configurations 353</p> <p>13.3.2.1 Air Cathode MDC 353</p> <p>13.3.2.2 Biocathode MDC 354</p> <p>13.3.2.3 Stacked MDC (sMDC) 355</p> <p>13.3.2.4 Recirculation MDC (rMDC) 357</p> <p>13.3.2.5 Microbial Electrolysis Desalination and Chemical Production Cell (MEDCC) 358</p> <p>13.3.2.6 Capacitive MDC (cMDC) 359</p> <p>13.3.2.7 Upflow MDC (UMDC) 360</p> <p>13.3.2.8 Osmotic MDC (OMDC) 361</p> <p>13.3.2.9 Bipolar Membrane Microbial Desalination Cell 362</p> <p>13.3.2.10 Decoupled MDC 363</p> <p>13.3.2.11 Separator Coupled Stacked Circulation MDC (c‐SMDC‐S) 364</p> <p>13.3.2.12 Ion-Exchange Resin Coupled Microbial Desalination Cell 365</p> <p>13.4 Factors Affecting the Performance and Efficiency of Desalination Cells 366</p> <p>13.4.1 Effect of External Resistance 366</p> <p>13.4.2 Effect of Internal Resistance 367</p> <p>13.4.3 Effect of pH 367</p> <p>13.4.4 Effect of Microorganisms 368</p> <p>13.4.5 Effect of Operating Conditions 369</p> <p>13.4.6 Effect of Membrane Scaling and Fouling 370</p> <p>13.4.7 Effect of Desalinated Water Contamination 370</p> <p>13.5 Current Challenges and Further Prospects 370</p> <p>Acknowledgment 371</p> <p>References 372</p> <p><b>14 Conventional Fuel Cells vs Biofuel Cells 377<br /></b><i>Naila Yamin, Wajeeha Khalid, Muhammad Altaf, Raja Shahid Ashraf, Munazza Shahid and Amna Zulfiqar</i></p> <p>14.1 Bioelectrochemical Cell 378</p> <p>14.2 Types 378</p> <p>14.2.1 Fuel Cells 378</p> <p>14.2.1.1 Conventional Fuel Cell (FC) 378</p> <p>14.2.1.2 History 378</p> <p>14.2.1.3 Principle of FC 380</p> <p>14.2.1.4 Construction/Designs 380</p> <p>14.2.1.5 Stacking of Fuel Cell 383</p> <p>14.2.1.6 Importance of Conventional FC 384</p> <p>14.2.2 Types of FC 384</p> <p>14.2.2.1 Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) 385</p> <p>14.2.2.2 Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) 386</p> <p>14.2.2.3 Direct Methanol Fuel Cell (DMFC) 388</p> <p>14.2.2.4 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) 389</p> <p>14.2.2.5 Alkaline FC (AFC) 390</p> <p>14.2.2.6 Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC) 391</p> <p>14.2.3 Advantages of Fuel Cells 394</p> <p>14.2.3.1 Efficiency 394</p> <p>14.2.3.2 Low Emissions 394</p> <p>14.2.3.3 Noiseless 394</p> <p>14.2.4 Applications 394</p> <p>14.3 Biofuel Cells 395</p> <p>14.3.1 Introduction 395</p> <p>14.3.2 Categories of Biofuel 395</p> <p>14.3.2.1 First-Generation Biofuel 395</p> <p>14.3.2.2 Second-Generation Biofuel 399</p> <p>14.3.2.3 Third-Generation Biofuel 399</p> <p>14.3.2.4 Fourth-Generation Biofuel 399</p> <p>14.3.3 Advantages of Biofuels 399</p> <p>14.4 Types of Biofuel Cells 399</p> <p>14.4.1 Microbial Fuel Cell 399</p> <p>14.4.1.1 Basic Principles of MFC 401</p> <p>14.4.1.2 Types of MFCs 403</p> <p>14.4.1.3 Mechanism of Electron Transfer 404</p> <p>14.4.1.4 Uses of MFCs 405</p> <p>14.4.1.5 Advantages of MFCs 406</p> <p>14.4.1.6 Disadvantage of MFCs 407</p> <p>14.4.2 Enzymatic Biofuel Cells (EBCs) 407</p> <p>14.4.2.1 Principle/Mechanism 407</p> <p>14.4.2.2 Working of EBCs 407</p> <p>14.4.2.3 Immobilization of an Enzyme 408</p> <p>14.4.3 Glucose Biofuel Cells (GBFCs) 409</p> <p>14.4.4 Photochemical Biofuel Cell 411</p> <p>14.4.5 Flexible or Stretchable Biofuel Cell 412</p> <p>14.5 Conclusion 413</p> <p>References 413</p> <p><b>15 State-of-the-Art and Prospective in Biofuel Cells: A Roadmap Towards Sustainability 423<br /></b><i>Biswajit Debnath, Moumita Sardar, Khushbu K. Birawat, Indrashis Saha and Ankita Das</i></p> <p>15.1 Introduction 423</p> <p>15.2 Membrane-Based and Membrane-Less Biofuel Cells 425</p> <p>15.3 Enzymatic Biofuel Cells 429</p> <p>15.4 Wearable Biofuel Cells 432</p> <p>15.5 Fuels for Biofuel Cells 434</p> <p>15.6 Roadmap to Sustainability 434</p> <p>15.7 Conclusion and Future Direction 438</p> <p>Acknowledgement 439</p> <p>References 439</p> <p><b>16 Anodes for Biofuel Cells 449<br /></b><i>Naveen Patel, Dibyajyoti Mukherjee, Ishu Vansal, Rama Pati Mishra and Vinod Kumar Chaudhary</i></p> <p>16.1 Introduction 450</p> <p>16.2 Anode Material Properties 451</p> <p>16.3 Anode 452</p> <p>16.3.1 Non-Carbon Anode Materials 452</p> <p>16.3.2 Carbon Anode Materials 453</p> <p>16.4 Anode Modification 453</p> <p>16.4.1 Anode Modification With Carbon Nanotube (CNT) 453</p> <p>16.4.2 Graphite-Based Material for Anode Electrode Modification 454</p> <p>16.4.3 Anode Modification With Nanocomposite of Metal Oxides 454</p> <p>16.4.4 Anode Modification With Conducting Polymer 455</p> <p>16.4.5 Chemical and Electrochemical Anode Modifications 456</p> <p>16.5 Challenge and Future Perspectives 456</p> <p>16.6 Conclusion 457</p> <p>Acknowledgements 457</p> <p>References 457</p> <p><b>17 Applications of Biofuel Cells 465<br /></b><i>Joel Joseph, Muthamilselvi Ponnuchamy, Ashish Kapoor and Prabhakar Sivaraman</i></p> <p>17.1 Introduction 465</p> <p>17.2 Fuel Cell 467</p> <p>17.3 Biofuel Cells 468</p> <p>17.3.1 Microbial Biofuel Cell 469</p> <p>17.3.1.1 At Anode Chamber 470</p> <p>17.3.1.2 At Cathode Chamber 471</p> <p>17.3.2 Enzymatic Biofuel Cell 471</p> <p>17.3.3 Mammalian Biofuel Cell 472</p> <p>17.4 Implantable Devices Powered by Using Biofuel Cell 473</p> <p>17.4.1 Implantable Biofuel Cell for Pacemakers or Artificial Urinary Sphincter 473</p> <p>17.4.2 Implantable Medical Devices Powered by Mammalian Biofuel Cells 474</p> <p>17.4.3 Medical Devices Using PEM Fuel Cell 475</p> <p>17.4.4 Implantable Brain Machine Interface Using Glucose Fuel Cell 475</p> <p>17.5 Single Compartment EBFCs 476</p> <p>17.6 Extracting Energy from Human Perspiration Through Epidermal Biofuel Cell 476</p> <p>17.7 Mammalian Body Fluid as an Energy Source 477</p> <p>17.8 Implantation of Enzymatic Biofuel Cell in Living Lobsters 477</p> <p>17.9 Biofuel Cell Implanted in Snail 477</p> <p>17.10 Application of Biofuel Cell 478</p> <p>17.11 Conclusion 479</p> <p>References 479</p> <p>Index 483</p>
<p><b>Inamuddin, PhD, </b>is an assistant professor at the Department of Applied Chemistry, Zakir Husain College of Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has extensive research experience in analytical chemistry, materials chemistry, electrochemistry, renewable energy, and environmental science. He has worked on different research projects funded by various government agencies and universities and is the recipient of multiple awards, including the Fast Track Young Scientist Award and the Young Researcher of the Year Award for 2020, from Aligarh Muslim University. He has published almost 200 research articles in various international scientific journals, 18 book chapters, and 120 edited books with multiple well-known publishers. </p> <p><B>Mohd Imran Ahamed, PhD,</B> is a research associate in the Department of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India. He has published several research and review articles in various international scientific journals and has co-edited multiple books. His research work includes ion-exchange chromatography, wastewater treatment, and analysis, bending actuator and electrospinning. <p><b>Rajender Boddula, PhD,</b> is currently working for the Chinese Academy of Sciences President’s International Fellowship Initiative (CAS-PIFI) at the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST, Beijing). His academic honors include multiple fellowships and scholarships, and he has published many scientific articles in international peer-reviewed journals. He is also serving as an editorial board member and a referee for several reputed international peer-reviewed journals. He has published edited books with numerous publishers and has authored over 20 book chapters. <p><b>Mashallah Rezakazemi, PhD,</b> received his doctorate from the University of Tehran (UT) in 2015. In his first appointment, he served as associate professor in the Faculty of Chemical and Materials Engineering at Shahrood University of Technology. He has co-authored in more than 140 highly cited journal publications, conference articles and book chapters. He has received numerous major awards and grants from various funding agencies in recognition of his research. Notable among these are Khwarizmi Youth Award from the Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (IROST), and the Outstanding Young Researcher Award in Chemical Engineering from the Academy of Sciences of Iran. He was named a top 1% most Highly Cited Researcher by Web of Science (ESI).
<p><b>This book covers the most recent developments in biofuel cells and offers a detailed overview of fundamentals, principles, mechanisms, properties, optimizing parameters, analytical characterization tools, and various types of biofuel cells, edited by one of the most well-respected and prolific engineers in the world and his team.</b></p> <p>Rapid industrialization and urbanization associated with environmental changes calls for reduced pollution and thereby lower use of fossil fuels. Biofuel cells are bioenergy resources and biocompatible alternatives to conventional fuel cells. Biofuel cells are one of the new sustainable renewable energy sources that are based on the direct conversion of chemical matters to electricity with the aid of microorganisms or enzymes as biocatalysts. The gradual depletion of fossil fuels, increasing energy needs, and the pressing problem of environmental pollution have stimulated a wide range of research and development efforts for renewable and environmentally friendly energy. Energy generation from biomass resources by employing biofuel cells is crucial for sustainable development. Biofuel cells have attracted considerable attention as micro- or even nano-power sources for implantable biomedical devices, such as cardiac pacemakers, implantable self-powered sensors, and biosensors for monitoring physiological parameters. <p>This book covers the most recent developments and offers a detailed overview of fundamentals, principles, mechanisms, properties, optimizing parameters, analytical characterization tools, various types of biofuel cells, all categories of materials, catalysts, engineering architectures, implantable biofuel cells, applications and novel innovations and challenges in this sector. This book is a reference guide for anyone working in the areas of energy and the environment. <p>This outstanding new volume: <ul><li>Presents a pioneering overview of the concepts and challenges of biofuel cells</li> <li>Gives in-depth description of the concepts and applications of biofuel cells</li> <li>Contains contributions from noted professionals in the field of biofuel cells</li> <li>Is a valuable resource for physicists, chemists and material scientists, among others</li> <li>Provides up-to-date information on biofuel cells applications</li></ul> <p><b>Audience:</b> This book is an essential reference guide for engineers, scientists, students, faculty, industrialists, energy chemists, material scientists, electrochemists, biotechnologists, microbiologists, and environmentalists who would like to understand the science behind advanced renewable energy, advanced materials and flexible implantable devices, a must-have for anyone working in this area in the energy industry.

Diese Produkte könnten Sie auch interessieren:

Uncertainty in the Electric Power Industry
Uncertainty in the Electric Power Industry
von: Christoph Weber
PDF ebook
160,49 €
Applied Mathematics for Restructured Electric Power Systems
Applied Mathematics for Restructured Electric Power Systems
von: Joe H. Chow, Felix F. Wu, James A. Momoh
PDF ebook
192,59 €
Robust Control in Power Systems
Robust Control in Power Systems
von: Bikash Pal, Balarko Chaudhuri
PDF ebook
117,69 €